Category Miscellaneous

Google Celebrates the First Day of Summer with a Seasonal Doodle
Miscellaneous

Google Celebrates the First Day of Summer with a Seasonal Doodle

Happy solstice where ever you are!By Jessica MileyJune 21, 2019June 21 marks the longest and shortest days of the year depending on which hemisphere you are.If you are in the north, Google is marking the first official day of Summer with a very special Google doodle.SEE ALSO: STONEHENGE, THE WINTER SOLSTICE, AND THE DRUIDSThe cute illustration depicts our planet Earth with eyes, an umbrella and beach lounge sit on its head.

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Miscellaneous

JTAG Interface, TAP Test Access Port

Boundary Scan JTAG Includes:What is Boundary Scan / JTAGBoundary scan description language, BSDLDesign for test with boundary scanJTAG Spec & IEEE 1149 StandardJTAG TAP & connectorIEEE 1149.6 (AC coupled JTAG)Compact JTAG cJTAG IEEE 1149.7IJTAG, IEEE 1687In order to be able to use the boundary scan, JTAG system it is necessary to be able to communicate correctly with any board that is set up to use JTAG.
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Miscellaneous

VXI Modules & Cards

VXI Technology Includes:What is VXI testChassis / rackVXIbus connectors & connectionsModules & cardsMXIVXI test instruments and other items are all contained within a VXI module or card.These modules and cards are contained within a VXI chassis with which they all interface.In order that VXI instruments, modules or cards from any manufacturer can be used within any chassis, it is necessary that they all conform to tight standards.
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Miscellaneous

How to Use GPIB / IEEE 488

GPIB / IEEE 488 Bus Includes:GPIB / IEEE 488 busGPIB operation / commands / protocolIEEE 488.2How to Use GPIB / IEEE 488GPIB / IEEE 488 cablesGPIB / IEEE 488 connectorsGPIB / IEEE 488 pinout / pin connectionsIn practice the GPIB interface is very easy to use. Ready-made GPIB cables are widely available even if they appear to be a little expensive.
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Miscellaneous

GPIB Pinouts & Interconnections

GPIB / IEEE 488 Bus Includes:GPIB / IEEE 488 busGPIB operation / commands / protocolIEEE 488.2How to Use GPIB / IEEE 488GPIB / IEEE 488 cablesGPIB / IEEE 488 connectorsGPIB / IEEE 488 pinout / pin connectionsThe connections or pinout for the GPIB system is standardised and uses the 24 way Amphenol Type 57 connector.
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Miscellaneous

Basic Cellular Communications System Concepts

Cellular / Mobile Telecommunications Basics Includes:What is cellular communicationsConcept of cellular systemMultiple access techniquesDuplex techniquesWhat& 39;s inside a cellphoneHandoverBackhaulCellular systems are widely used today and cellular technology needs to offer very efficient use of the available frequency spectrum.
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Miscellaneous

What's Inside a Cellphone

Cellular / Mobile Telecommunications Basics Includes:What is cellular communicationsConcept of cellular systemMultiple access techniquesDuplex techniquesWhat& 39;s inside a cellphoneHandoverBackhaulThe mobile phone or cell phone as it is often called is equally important to the network in the operation of the complete cellular telecommunications network.
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Miscellaneous

3GPP Technical Specifications Groups

3GPP overview includes:What is 3GPPStandards/ Releases3GPP groupsThe work undertaken by 3GPP in updating and maintaining the standards for existing technologies as well as introducing new technologies is undertaken by Technical Specifications Groups, TSGs and under these are Working Groups, WGs.In total there are four 3GPP Technical Specifications Groups, or TSGs, each of which consists of multiple Working Groups, WGs.
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Miscellaneous

LTE OFDM, OFDMA SC-FDMA & Modulation

OFDM forms the basic signal format used within 4G LTE. OFDM, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex is the basic format used and this is modified to provide the multiple access scheme: OFDMA, orthogonal frequency division multiple access in the downlink and SC-FDMA, single channel orthogonal frequency division multiple access in the uplink.
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Miscellaneous

UMTS / WCDMA Modulation

3G UMTS includes:What is UMTSNetwork architectureRadio accessRadio interfaceFrequency bandsUMTS CDMAModulationData channelsUMTS TDDTD-SDCDMAHandoverThe basic signal format for UMTS is WCDMA, but this can utilise a variety of different forms of modulation.The modulation used for UMTS WCDMA is dependent upon a variety of factors including spectrum efficiency, signal to noise ratio, error correction and a number of other variable.
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Miscellaneous

LTE_LAA & LTE-U Unlicensed

LTE networks are carrying an increasing amount of data. Although cells can be made smaller to help accommodate this, it is not the complete solution and more spectrum is needed.One approach is to use unlicensed spectrum alongside the licensed bands. Known in 3GPP as LTE-LAA - LTE License Assisted Access or more generally as LTE U - LTE Unlicensed, it enables access to unlicensed spectrum especially in the 5GHz ISM band.
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Miscellaneous

4G LTE CoMP, Coordinated Multipoint

4G LTE CoMP, Coordinated Multipoint is used to provide improved performance, particularly at cell edges by utilising the capability of more than one base station to enable the communciatoions.LTE CoMP utilises a number of different techniques to dynamically coordinate the transmission and reception for a UE to and from a variety of different base stations.
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Miscellaneous

5G Millimetre Wave

5G Cellular Technology Tutorial Includes:5G Technology5G Requirements5G NR, New Radio5G NG NextGen Network5G waveforms & modulation5G multiple access scheme5G mmWaveMassive MIMO & beam-formingFrequency bands & channelsData channels: physical, transport & logicalOne of the options that is most likely to be incorporated into the 5G technologies that are being developed for the 5G cellular telecommunications systems is a millimetre wave capability.
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Miscellaneous

5G NextGen Core Network

5G Cellular Technology Tutorial Includes:5G Technology5G Requirements5G NR, New Radio5G NG NextGen Network5G waveforms & modulation5G multiple access scheme5G mmWaveMassive MIMO & beam-formingFrequency bands & channelsData channels: physical, transport & logicalThe 5G NextGen, NG core network will play a key role in enabling the performance of the 5G mobile communications system.
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Miscellaneous

RFID Security & Privacy

RFID Tutorial Includes:RFID basicsCoupling techniquesTags & smart labelsReaders, writers & printersRFID antennasFrequency bands & spectrumSecurityStandardsWireless technology can be open to security issues, and as a result RFID security is a major issue.Linked to RFID security, another associated issue is that of privacy.
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Miscellaneous

3G UMTS WCDMA Frequency Bands & UARFCN

3G UMTS includes:What is UMTSNetwork architectureRadio accessRadio interfaceFrequency bandsUMTS CDMAModulationData channelsUMTS TDDTD-SDCDMAHandoverAlthough there are many bands and frequencies available now for mobile telecommunications, 3G UMTS had a number of recognised bands that were widely used for carrying these services.
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Miscellaneous

5G Frequency Bands, Channels for FR1 & FR2

5G Cellular Technology Tutorial Includes:5G Technology5G Requirements5G NR, New Radio5G NG NextGen Network5G waveforms & modulation5G multiple access scheme5G mmWaveMassive MIMO & beam-formingFrequency bands & channelsData channels: physical, transport & logicalThe 5G new radio, 5G NR utilises a variety of different frequency bands.
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Miscellaneous

LTE UE Category & Class Definitions

LTE categories are important because they provide information to the base station, eNB from the user equipment, UE about the capability of the UE.The UE lets the eNB about its performance by letting it know its category. In this way the eNB is able to provide data at the required level.In some cases the category might inform the eNB that it requires very low data rates as in the case of Cat 0 or Cat M where the level of performance is directed ore towards remote devices, whereas some may be able to provide very high levels of performance like Cat 6, Cat 7, or even Cat 9.
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Miscellaneous

Bluetooth data file transfer

Bluetooth Tutorial / Summary Includes:Bluetooth technology basicsRadio interfaceFile transferBluetooth profilesPairing & networkingSecurityTo provide effective mechanisms for the data transfer over a Bluetooth link, the standard has a number of protocols and different types of link to ensure that the wireless link is managed in the most effective manner.
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Miscellaneous

RFID Readers, Writers, Transceivers & Printers

RFID Tutorial Includes:RFID basicsCoupling techniquesTags & smart labelsReaders, writers & printersRFID antennasFrequency bands & spectrumSecurityStandardsRFID readers, writes and printers provide the majority of intelligence and processing for any RFID set-up.Typically the tags are less complicated as they need to either be powered passively or from small long life batteries.
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Miscellaneous

CDMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detection

Ethernet IEEE 802.3 Includes:Ethernet introductionStandardsEthernet data frame structure100Mbps Fast EthernetGigabit Ethernet, 1GE10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10GEEthernet cablesHow to buy Ethernet cablesRouters, hubs, switches - the differencesPower over Ethernet, PoECarrier EthernetWhen it is possible for different devices to transmit on the same channel simultaneously, a method of resolving the issue is needed otherwise data will be lost and the channel will become congested.
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