The Traveling Salesman Problem is the wall between us and fully optimized networks. If there was ever a trillion dollar algorithm, this is it.May 03, 2019This is the fifth article in a seven-part series on Algorithms and Computation, which explores how we use simple binary numbers to power our world.
Tunnel Diode Tutorial Includes:Tunnel diodeTunnel diode theoryTunnel diode device structureBackward diodeOther diodes: Diode typesThe tunnel diode is a type of microwave semiconductor diode that can be used in oscillators and also amplifiers.Rather than using the standard physics of the ordinary PN junction, the tunnel diode uses a quantum mechanical effect called tunnelling – from which it gains its name.
GPRS General Packet Radio Service Tutorial Includes:GPRS basicsNetwork architectureMobile / multislot classesRadio interfaceCodingChannels: physical, logical, controlGPRS protocol stackOperational statesGPRS - General Packet Radio Service was the evolution of 2G GSM to provide packet switched data at rates up to a maximum of 172 kbps.
LoRa Long Range Includes:LoRa basicsPhysical layerLoRaWAN networkLoRa is a & 39;Long Range& 39; low power wireless standard intended for providing a cellular style low data rate communications network.Aimed at the M2M and IoT market, LoRa is ideal for providing intermittent low data rate connectivity over significant distances.
Optical Fibre Communications Includes:Fibre communication basicsOptical fibreConnectorsSplicingOptical transmitterOptical receiverFibre optic communication has revolutionised the telecommunications industry. It has also made its presence widely felt within the data networking community as well. Using fibre optic cable, optical communications have enabled telecommunications links to be made over much greater distances and with much lower levels of loss in the transmission medium and possibly most important of all, fiber optical communications has enabled much higher data rates to be accommodated.
RS422 was introduced to enable higher data rates to be transferred over serial data lines than was possible with RS232.RS422 is able to provide data rates of up to 10 Mbps at distances up to 50 feet (15.24 metres). However using reduced data rates, RS422 is able to transmit data over distances of 4000 feet (~1220 metres): the maximum is 100 kbps at this distance.
Ham radio bands summaries includes:Ham radio bands summaries136 kHz LF bandHF bandsVHF bandsUHF bandsThe VHF and UHF amateur radio allocations provide an interesting environment in which to operate. They are very different to the HF ham radio bands in their character, but this means that they provide a different challenge and a different area of interest within the hobby of amateur radio.
Private / Land Mobile Radio Includes:LMR / PMR basicsMPT1327TETRAP25DMRdPMRNXDNBusiness radio, Private Mobile Radio, PMR, is widely used within the business community to provide communications outside the normal cellular or public switch telephone networks. These private mobile radio, PMR, systems provide essential communications for business where there is a need for mobile communications with a variety of users - the requirements are very different to those provided by the cellular network.
RS485 was developed to provide high speed data. The standard is defined by industry telecommunications bodies and may be referred to most commonly as RS485, but references to EIA485 or TIA-485 may also be seen.RS485 is able to provide a headline data rate of 10 Mbps at distances up to 50 feet, but distances can be extended to 4000 feet with a lower speed of 100 kbps.
Ham radio bands summaries includes:Ham radio bands summaries136 kHz LF bandHF bandsVHF bandsUHF bandsThe UHF amateur radio allocations provide an interesting environment in which to operate. They are very different to the HF ham radio bands in their character, but this means that they provide a different challenge and a different area of interest within the hobby of amateur radio.
Private / Land Mobile Radio Includes:LMR / PMR basicsMPT1327TETRAP25DMRdPMRNXDNProject 25, also known by its short name P25 or APCO-25 is a digital radio system used for land mobile applications, especially by the federal, state or province and local public safety agencies. P25 radio is most widely used in North America and can often be thought of as being equivalent to TETRA radio, although it does not interoperate with it.
Codes & abbreviations includes:SummaryAbbreviationsRST codeQ codePhonetic alphabetThe Q code is widely used in radio communications applications. The Q code arose out of the need to communicate quickly and concisely when using Morse code, but its use has spread more widely than that, especially within amateur radio.
DSSS, direct sequence spread spectrum is a form of spread spectrum transmission which uses spreading codes to spread the signal out over a wider bandwidth then would normally be required.The technique behind direct sequence spread spectrum, DSSS is at first sight counter-intuitive, but DSSS is used in a number of areas where it enables considerable benefits to be gained.
Satellite Facts Includes:Satellite factsThere are many satellites in orbit fulfilling a huge variety of functions. Satellite technology has now become a part of everyday life, enabling worldwide communications, global navigation, surveying and monitor as well as gathering data for weather forecasting, and many more applications.
Walter Houser Brattain was one of the trio of famous scientists who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1956 for the invention of the transistor. Brattain shared the award with his colleagues, John Bardeen and William Shockley.Brattain early yearsWalter Brattain was born in Xiamen, China on 10 February 1902.
Data Network Analyze & Network Monitor Includes:Data network analyzerThere are many different types of data network monitor and analyzer available for testing and monitoring the performance of today& 39;s data networks.These test instruments come in a variety of forms, some insister of software that can be embedded into the network, whereas others may be test instruments in the more traditional format thought of for electronic test equipment.
ATE - Automatic Test Equipment. A test equipment system that is computer driven and able to run test programmes to test the unit under test.Autorange - The ability of an instrument to automatically choose the optimum range of the instrument for the magnitude of the measurement being made.AVO - Amps Volts and Ohms.
Single sideband modulation is widely used in the HF portion, or short wave portion of the radio spectrum for two way radio communication. There are many users of single sideband modulation. Many users requiring two way radio communication will use single sideband and they range from marine applications, generally HF point to point transmissions, military as well as radio amateurs or radio hams.
Setting up a Business Includes:How to set up your own businessHow to write a business planAdvantages & disadvantages of own businessHow to market your businessHow to set the right prices for productsHow to set the right contract / consultancy ratesWhat is professional indemnity insuranceSetting up your own business could be the dream of many people, or it could come out of necessity - lost jobs for one of many reasons; difficulty in getting a new one; a burning desire to do your own things.
Mouser Electronics was founded in El Cajon, California by Jerry Mouser, a physics teacher who needed components for an electronics program at his high school, in 1964.Since this time the company has grown considerably and moved from its original location in California to Texas where more space is available for its warehousing facility.