Scientists have studied the relationship between porcupines and lions in a bid to understand evolution better. Lions are an apex creature, a fierce hunter with few enemies. But the much smaller porcupine can give these incredible beats a run for their money.RELATED: GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: MUSE OF DARWIN& 39;S THEORY OF EVOLUTIONResearchers from Roosevelt University have examined the history of the relationship between lions and porcupines to figure out why lions are attracted to hunt porcupines and why the porcupines often win the war.
There are many components that can be used in electronic and radio circuits. For each type there are variants and these may enable them to be used in different ways.Passive componentsLearn about electronics online with our tutorials about passive components: resistors, capacitors, inducators, crystals and many more.
Cellular / Mobile Telecommunications Basics Includes:What is cellular communicationsConcept of cellular systemMultiple access techniquesDuplex techniquesWhat& 39;s inside a cellphoneHandoverBackhaulMobile phone or cellular telecommunications technology has been in widespread use since the early 1980s.
Contests & contesting includes:Contesting + calendarHints & tipsAmateur radio contests and contesting are an important feature in the activities of many radio hams. Contests and contesting add a further dimension to amateur radio operating, proving new challenges and interest to the hobby. Some radio hams even run their calendar by when the contests occur.
Tropospheric propagation tutorial includes:Tropospheric propagationTroposcatter communicationsOn frequencies above 30 MHz, it is found that the troposphere has an increasing effect on radio signals and radio communications systems. The radio signals are able to travel over greater distances than would be suggested by line of sight calculations.
5G Cellular Technology Tutorial Includes:5G Technology5G Requirements5G NR, New Radio5G NG NextGen Network5G waveforms & modulation5G multiple access scheme5G mmWaveMassive MIMO & beam-formingFrequency bands & channelsData channels: physical, transport & logicalThe 5G mobile communications system provides a far higher level of performance than the previous generations of mobile communications systems.
Logic Analyzer Includes:Logic analyzer basicsHow to use a logic analyzerLogic analyzer specificationsProbesLogic analyzers are test instruments that are widely used for testing complex digital or logic circuits. They meet the need for users who need to be able to investigate and understand the operation of these circuits.
SMT Soldering Includes:SMT soldering techniquesWave solderingReflow solderingSoldering BGAsWhat is solder paste & how to use itSee also:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsSurface mount technology, SMT with its associated surface mount devices, SMDs enable PCB assembly of electronic equipment to be far more efficient than had the old leaded technology been used.
Job Application Process Includes:Job Application ProcessCV preparationJob application letterOnline job applicationJob interviewInterview etiquetteWriting a CV, curriculum vitae is a key part of the process of applying for a job. This could be a permanent job, a contracting position or even consultancy work.
One of the key areas of any radio system is that part where the signal is transfered from the transmitter to the receiver. This involves the use of antennas or aerials to radiate the signal as an electromagnetic wave, and then there is the way that the electromagntic wave travels or propagates between the transmitting antenna and the receiving one.
USB Universal Serial Bus Includes:USB introductionUSB standardsConnectors, pinouts & cablesData transfer & protocolUSB 3USB-CUSB hubsHow to buy best USB hubUSB, Universal Serial Bus is one of the most common interfaces for connecting a variety of peripherals to computers and providing relatively local and small levels of data transfer.
Radio Propagation Tutorial Includes:Radio propagation basicsRadio signal path lossFree space propagation & path lossLink budgetRadio wave reflectionRadio wave refractionRadio wave diffractionMultipath propagationMultipath fadingRayleigh fadingThe atmosphere & radio propagationRadio signals can travel over vast distances.
Microphone Tutorial Includes:Microphone basicsMicrophone typesMicrophone specsMicrophone directionalityDynamic microphoneCondenser microphoneElectret microphoneRibbon microphoneCrystal / ceramic microphoneBoundary / PZM microphoneCarbon microphoneHow to buy best microphoneMicrophones for videoMicrophones for vocals/ singingMicrophones are used in many places and for many jobs.
USB Chargers Includes:Buy best USB chargerBuy best car USB chargerBattery charges for AAA, AA, C & D batteriesVirtually all small electronic devices from mobile phones to batteries, iPods, iPads, tablets, portable gaming machines and many more all need charging.In the early days of mobile phones and other similar equipment, each item needed its own battery charger and this resulted in everyone accumulating a huge number of different chargers which were not compatible with devices apart from the specific equipment for which they were supplied.
Electrical and RF noise appears in all electronic and RF systems to a lesser or greater degree, and it can affect and limit the performance of many systemsElectrical and RF noise comes in many forms. It can be generated in many ways and noise can affect electronic and radio frequency, RF circuits and systems.
Inductors Includes:Inductor typesSpecificationsHow to select the right inductorFerritesFerrite beadsInductors of many types and styles are used throughout the electronics industry.Inductors perform a number of different styles of function within a circuit. Some types can be used for filtering and removing spikes on power lines, others are used within high performance filters.
3G UMTS includes:What is UMTSNetwork architectureRadio accessRadio interfaceFrequency bandsUMTS CDMAModulationData channelsUMTS TDDTD-SDCDMAHandoverUMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, is the 3G successor to the GSM family of standards including GPRS and EDGE.3G UMTS uses a totally different radio interface based around the use of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum as CDMA or Code Division Multiple Access.
Soldering Tutorial Includes:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsPCB solder resistSee also:SMT soldering techniques for PCB assemblySoldering is one of the key processes in the manufacture of electronic equipment.
PCB Design Includes:PCB design basicsSchematic capture & drawingPCB layout / routingPCB design guidelinesPCB signal integrityKnowing how to design a printed circuit board, PCB is a key element of any electronic circuit design process.The PCB layout and design has a major impact on the way in which a circuit work, and therefore if the printed circuit board is designed in an effective way, then the circuit will perform more reliably and within its specification.
Boundary Scan JTAG Includes:What is Boundary Scan / JTAGBoundary scan description language, BSDLDesign for test with boundary scanJTAG Spec & IEEE 1149 StandardJTAG TAP & connectorIEEE 1149.6 (AC coupled JTAG)Compact JTAG cJTAG IEEE 1149.7IJTAG, IEEE 1687Since its introduction in the early 1990s, boundary scan, also known as JTAG or IEEE 1149, has become an essential tool used for testing boards in development, production and in the field.
Most electronics constructional projects involve at least some degree of soldering and wiring. Many projects have a printed circuit board, PCB, forming most of the project, but it is necessary to connect the PCB to other controls and sockets, etc elsewhere within the final project. The connections that are made to many of these items will be exposed.